Conservation agriculture is an alternative to conventional agriculture and one of the most efficient systems for sustainable agricultural development, stimulating soil biological activity, increasing organic matter and humus content. In order to evaluate the impact of the conservation agriculture system compared to the conventional agriculture system on wheat yield, a bi-factorial experiment on wheat crop based on split-plot model was organized in the Transylvania Plain, Romania, where there are a few research results in the field and the area has a high potential for the implementation of conservation agriculture system. First factor (A™) was agriculture system, having two levels: A1™ tillage (classic) system and A2™ no-tillage system, and the second, B™ factor was fertilization, with three levels: B1™ no fertilization, B2™ N80P40 kg/ha, which is the average level practiced by farmers in the area and B3™ N150P75 kg/ha, which is the recommended level for obtaining a high production performance specific to Ariesanâ™ wheat cultivar used in this experiment. The results pointed out that, in comparison with conventional agriculture, the application of no-tillage system determined a lower wheat yield by 353 kg per surface unit. Fertilization assured a significant increase by 610 kg wheat grains per ha. In the case of the conservation agriculture system, the highest production gain was 1,260 kg/ha for B3A2™ level compared to B1A2™ level, where the highest fertilization level was applied. The lowest production gain was 410 kg/ha registered by B3A1-B1A1™ which was the highest fertilizer dose in case of conventional agriculture. In conclusion, the application of no-tillage system increased the efficiency of fertilization in terms of wheat yield compared to the classical agriculture. As a result, it is recommended as farmers dealing with wheat cropping in the area and also in other regions with similar soil and climate conditions to implement conservation agriculture.