The Mineral Source for Human Nutrition of Nuts in Different Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) Cultivars

Hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) have a significant place among the types of dried nuts in terms of nutrition and health owing to their special composition of fats, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers and phenolic antioxidants. Different hazelnut cultivars grown in Romania (‘Cozia’, ‘Romavel’, ‘Valcea 22’, ‘Roverd’ and ‘Red Lambert’) were evaluated for their mineral composition. Microelements were determined by using ICP-MS and a Flame AAS. The average microelements concentrations in the cultivars have varied in the following ranges (mg 100 g-1): K, 591.75 - 639.13; P, 300.67 - 455.06; Mg, 205.02 - 335.54; Ca, 72.07 - 130.92; Mn, 8.77 - 19.07; Fe, 5.3 - 8.77; Cu, 1.62 - 3.07; Zn, 1.82 - 2.84; Cr, 0.12 - 0.84; Na, 0.36 - 0.97; Al, 0.23 - 0.35; Sr, 0.88 - 1.6; Rb,1.34 - 3.03. According to the daily microelement requirements, the quantity of 100 g hazelnut provided approximately 13% for K, 55% for P, 70% for Mg, 10% for Ca, 94% for Fe, 22 for Zn and 5.6% for Cr of the RDA. These results indicated that hazelnuts are a rich source of a number of important micro-elements and hazelnut can be an important source of microelements for human nutrition and health.

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Seasonal Patterns of Carbohydrates in Mandrin cvs. Fremont™, Nova™ and Robinson™ on Different Rootstocks

The study was conducted at the experimental farm of Mustafa Kemal University, Dörtyol, Turkey during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Troyer™ and Carrizo™ citranges (Poncirus trifoliata Raf. x Citrus sinensis Osb. var. Troyer™ and Carrizo™), and common sour orange (Citrus aurantium L. var. common), rootstocks on the seasonal variation of carbohydrate content in the leaves of cvs. Fremont™, Nova™, and Robinson™ mandarin. The seasonal variation of carbohydrate content of the three cultivars budded on different rootstocks was nearly same. Soluble carbohydrate concentration showed a continuous decrease from January to mid or late-summer, and then slowly began to increase after early autumn till winter. The sucrose was the dominant soluble carbohydrate in leaves. The seasonal evolution of starch content in leaves increased initially during January to March, and then decreased in April. The starch concentration showed a continuous decrease slowly until the mid-autumn, and then accumulation began during late-autumn and winter. The total carbohydrate content differences among the rootstocks were significant, but the content was changed among the cultivars and according to the season. The change in the total carbohydrate content of leaf tissues showed a strong similarity in cultivars budded on different rootstocks throughout the year. The total carbohydrate content reached their lowest levels in July for cv. Robinson™, in August for cv. Fremont™ and cv. Nova™. The total carbohydrate content in leaves increased from the mid- or late-summer to winter. It is suggested that the seasonal variation of carbohydrate content in plant tissues can be considered during fertilization program in mandarin trees.

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Effects of Short Day Conditioning, Chilling and GA3 Treatments to Yield and Fruit Quality in Strawberry Plug Transplants Aiming Early Fruit Production

In this study, we tested the effects of short day (SD), chilling (Ch) and gibberalic acid (GA3) treatments on the yield and fruit characteristics of ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Sweet Charlie’ plug plants under a freeze-protected greenhouse in Mediterranean conditions for two growing seasons in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. The treatments included control (ambient day length and temperature); SD (8 h days) and ambient temperature; SD + Chilling (Ch) (18/12°C day/night temperatures); SD + Ch (10°C); SD + Ch (2°C); and, GA3 (10 ppm applied to the plants in November). In each growing season, the plug plants were planted in mid-August using bag culture. Yield, fruit weight, firmness, total soluble solids (SS), titratable acidity (TA), and SS/TA ratio were investigated. Considerable amounts of early yield (March and April) were recovered from ‘Sweet Charlie’; 116 and 72 g/plant in the first and second growing seasons, respectively. ‘Sweet Charlie’ also had consistently higher total yield than ‘Camarosa’ (457 vs. 400 g/plant in the 2006-2007 season and 446 vs. 406 g/plant in the 2007-2008 season). Treatment did not have a consistent effect on the fruit quality traits measured. The results indicated that although SD conditioning, Ch and GA3 treatments may have an effect on the total and early yield of strawberries, these effects may be cultivar-dependent and further regulated by environmental factors. Therefore, we propose that low-chilling varieties be utilized for early fruit production that can initiate flower buds in warmer, longer days.

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