The Influence of Salinity on Seedling Growth of Some Pumpkin Varieties Used as Rootstock

In this study, the effects of different salinity levels (0, “control”, 2, 4, 8, and 12 dS m-1) on seedling growth of Obez, RS 841 and Ferro F1 pumpkin varieties, widely used around the world as rootstock, were investigated. Seedlings grown under saline conditions were investigated for plant main stem length, plant length, root length, shoot length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weights and ion concentrations (Ca++, K+, Na+) in the leaves of pumpkin varieties. The results revealed that root length, shoot length, root fresh weight, root dry weight, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weights tend to decrease when the electrical conductivity of the solution is increased. Results indicated that these varieties responded different to some investigated parameters under saline conditions.

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Dark-chilling of Seedlings Affects Initiation and Morphology of Broccoli Inflorescence

The constant supply of broccoli heads for a vegetable market can be kept by the differentiation of sowing time and the age of seedlings. Dark-chilling of young seedlings can also modify the time of transplanting, subsequent plant development, yield and inflorescence quality. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of seedling dark-chilling on the inflorescence initiation and the morphological quality of broccoli heads. The experiment was carried out at the University of Agriculture in Krakow (South Poland) in the years 2009 and 2010, with broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck) medium late cultivar ‘Monaco’ F1. The examined factors were the age of seedlings (4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-week-old) and dark-chilling (2°C/2 weeks and non-chilled control). Microscopic analysis of the apex sections was performed to determine the time of the inflorescence differentiation in chilled and non-chilled seedlings of different age. Chosen morphological features of the mature heads were also described as depended on age and chilling of seedlings. The inflorescence initiation was observed between 4 and 6 week of the plant ontogeny. Especially 4-week-old seedlings, chilled by two weeks, were more advanced in the generative development in comparison to non-chilled control. Low temperature applied in the seedling stage did not cause the head buttoning. Inflorescences developed by broccoli planted from 4 and 6-week-old seedlings, both chilled and control, were characterized by the best visual quality, determined by a convex head shape, tight branching angle, small and uniform size and regular form of flower buds. Chilling of oldest, 8- and 10-week-old seedlings negatively affected the inflorescence quality, through planed and spread shape of heads and non-uniform shape of flower buds.

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Effect of No-tillage System and Fertilization on Wheat Production

Conservation agriculture is an alternative to conventional agriculture and one of the most efficient systems for sustainable agricultural development, stimulating soil biological activity, increasing organic matter and humus content. In order to evaluate the impact of the conservation agriculture system compared to the conventional agriculture system on wheat yield, a bi-factorial experiment on wheat crop based on split-plot model was organized in the Transylvania Plain, Romania, where there are a few research results in the field and the area has a high potential for the implementation of conservation agriculture system. First factor (A™) was agriculture system, having two levels: A1™ tillage (classic) system and A2™ no-tillage system, and the second, B™ factor was fertilization, with three levels: B1™ no fertilization, B2™ N80P40 kg/ha, which is the average level practiced by farmers in the area and B3™ N150P75 kg/ha, which is the recommended level for obtaining a high production performance specific to AriesanĂ¢™ wheat cultivar used in this experiment. The results pointed out that, in comparison with conventional agriculture, the application of no-tillage system determined a lower wheat yield by 353 kg per surface unit. Fertilization assured a significant increase by 610 kg wheat grains per ha. In the case of the conservation agriculture system, the highest production gain was 1,260 kg/ha for B3A2™ level compared to B1A2™ level, where the highest fertilization level was applied. The lowest production gain was 410 kg/ha registered by B3A1-B1A1™ which was the highest fertilizer dose in case of conventional agriculture. In conclusion, the application of no-tillage system increased the efficiency of fertilization in terms of wheat yield compared to the classical agriculture. As a result, it is recommended as farmers dealing with wheat cropping in the area and also in other regions with similar soil and climate conditions to implement conservation agriculture.

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