Genetic Diversity Within and Among Populations of Roseroot (Rhodiola rosea L.) Based on Molecular Markers
Rhodiola rosea L. is a perennial adaptogenic medicinal plant found in cool climate of the northern hemisphere. The species is very diverse both in terms of morphological characteristics and in the content of the pharmacologically active substances. The genetic diversity of four geographically distant roseroot populations was studied with ISSR and SSR markers. Using 7 ISSR primers 64 DNA fragments were generated and 85,94% of those were found to be polymorphic, indicating high genetic variability at the species level (gene diversity = 0.33, Shannon index = 0.48). Lower level of diversity was detected at the population level (Shannon-index ranged from 0.2173 to 0.2696). Only four out of the eight SSR markers used were informative during this study. The primer pairs for these four SSR markers produced 25 fragments with an average of 6.25 putative alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.4 to 1.0, whereas expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.47 to 0.84. Cluster analysis based on both markers revealed the same groups, individuals clustered according to their geographic origin. The Southern-Uralian population was the most genetically isolated. ITS analysis was used for the determination whether these Southern-Uralian individuals belong to the same species.