Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Eriobotrya Lindl. were examined based on the nrDNA Adh sequences. A phylogenetic tree of 14 loquat accessions (species, varieties and forma) was generated by using Photinieae serrulaia L. as an outgroup and Rhaphiolepis indica (L.) Lindl. as an ingroup, which represent the two closest genera of Eriobotyra. The results showed that these loquat accessions were divided into two main clades in the consensus tree. Clade I included E. seguinii Card and group A formed by E. henryi Nakai, E.bengalensis Hook.f., and forma angustifolia Vidal. Clade II is composed of the other taxas which included three groups. E. cavaleriei Rehd and E. fragrans Champ formed group B; group C consisted of E. prinoides Rehd. & Wils. var. dadunensis H.Z.Zhang, and E. japonica Lindl.; and group D included E. deflexa Nakai and E. deflexa Nakai Var.buisanensis NaKai. Since E. deflexa Nakai, E. deflexa Nakai Var.buisanensis NaKai and E. kwangsiensis Chun, were closer in the phylogenetic tree; while E. prinoides Rehd. & Wils. var. dadunensis H.Z.Zhang, E. japonica Lindl, E. prinoides Rehd & Wils and E.elliptica Lindl. were close with each other, they may be locataed at a similar place of the phylogenetic stage. However, E. malipoensis Kuan need further studies on its phylogenetis relationship for it was separated from the others. Results further support the theory that E. cavaleriei Rehd could be a variety of E. fragrans Champ.
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