Conservation Agriculture versus Conventional Agriculture: The Influence of Agriculture System, Fertilization and Plant Protection on Wheat Yield

The paper aimed at making a comparison between conservation agriculture and conventional agriculture on wheat yield, in a three crop rotation (wheat, maize and soybean) system. A three factorial experiment based on the split-plot model and variance analysis was set in the Transylvania area of Romania, as follows: A factor-agriculture system: A1-tillage, A2-no-tillage, B factor-fertilization: B1-N40P40 kg/ha. B2-N40P40 kg/ha+N50P30 kg/ha; C factor- treatments: C1-4 treatments, C2-3 treatments, C3-2 treatments at heading, C4-2 treatments at blooming. Fertilization applied in its B2 variant in conservation agriculture brought 460 kg/ha production gain, significantly and statistically ensured. Under conservation agriculture, two treatments applied at blooming determined 318 kg/ha production gain, statistically and significantly covered. The interaction fertilization-treatments produced the highest wheat yield 5001 kg/ha in case of the B2C3 variant, in conventional agriculture, and 5272 kg for the same variant in conservation agriculture, the difference of 953 kg compared to the central variant B1C1 being statistically ensured. Under the conditions of Transylvania, farmers could adopt conservation agriculture as a solution for increasing wheat production, reducing the number of treatments and applying more fertilizer upon blooming. The advantage of the implementation of such a system resides in its beneficial effect on soil structure, water reserve and biodiversity, as well.

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