Seed and Saponin Production of Organic Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) for different Tillage and Fertilization
Field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tillage systems and fertilization on growth, yield and quality of quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four replicates, two main plots [conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT)] and three sub-plots (fertilization treatments: control, cow manure and compost). The soil porosity (45.5-49.75%) and total nitrogen (0.144-0.173%) were higher in soils subjected to MT system than under CT. In soil porosity, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was found. The highest leaf area index (4.47-5.03), dry weight (8650-9290 kg ha-1) and root density (1.03-1.21 cm cm-3) were also found in MT. Moreover, there were significant differences between the organic fertilization treatments concerning the LAI, dry weight and root density. The highest seed yield (2485-2643 kg ha-1) and saponin content (0.42-0.45%) were found in cow manure and compost treatments. Also, the highest saponin yield (7.70-12.05 kg ha-1) was found in the MT system. Saponin yield had positive and significant correlation with total N (r=0.866). In quinoa measurements, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was not found. The present results indicated that MT and organic fertilization increase saponin yield of quinoa.